Int J Epidemiol Res. 2020;7(3): 136-141. doi: 10.34172/ijer.2020.24

Review Article

Social Epidemiology of Perceived Discrimination in the United States: Role of Race, Educational Attainment, and Income

Shervin Assari 1,2 * ORCID

Cited by CrossRef: 12

1- Gillespie S, Bose-Brill S, Giurgescu C, Gondwe K, Nolan T, Spurlock E, Christian L. Racial Discrimination and Stress Across the Life Course. 2021;70(5S):S21 [Crossref]
2- Bodnar L, Odoms-Young A, Kirkpatrick S, Naimi A, Petersen J, Martin C. Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Periconceptional Diet Quality. The Journal of Nutrition. 2023;153(8):2369 [Crossref]
3- Adinkrah E, Najand B, Young-Brinn A. Parental Education and Adolescents’ Asthma: The Role of Ethnicity. Children. 2023;10(2):267 [Crossref]
4- Dail R, Everhart K, Iskersky V, Chang W, Fisher K, Warren K, Steflik H, Hardin J. Prenatal and Postnatal Disparities in Very-Preterm Infants in a Study of Infections between 2018–2023 in Southeastern US. TropicalMed. 2024;9(4):70 [Crossref]
5- Assari S, Zare H. Beyond access, proximity to care, and healthcare use: sustained racial disparities in perinatal outcomes due to marginalization-related diminished returns and racism. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2022;63:e161 [Crossref]
6- Amaro H, Sanchez M, Bautista T, Cox R. Social vulnerabilities for substance use: Stressors, socially toxic environments, and discrimination and racism. Neuropharmacology. 2021;188:108518 [Crossref]
7- Siddiq H, Maharlouei N, Najand B, Rahmani A, Zare H. Immigration Status, Educational Level, and Perceived Discrimination in Europe. IJERPH. 2023;20(3):2222 [Crossref]
8- Hall O, Jordan A, Teater J, Dixon-Shambley K, McKiever M, Baek M, Garcia S, Rood K, Fielin D. Experiences of racial discrimination in the medical setting and associations with medical mistrust and expectations of care among black patients seeking addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2022;133:108551 [Crossref]
9- Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Thomas A, Cobb R, Hudson D, Curry T, Nicholson H, Cuevas A, Mistry R, Chavous T, Caldwell C, Zimmerman M. Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns. Children. 2021;8(5):412 [Crossref]
10- DeAngelis R, Hargrove T, Hummer R. Skin Tone and the Health Returns to Higher Status. 2022;59(5):1791 [Crossref]
11- Gillespie S, Christian L, Mackos A, Nolan T, Gondwe K, Anderson C, Hall M, Williams K, Slavich G. Lifetime stressor exposure, systemic inflammation during pregnancy, and preterm birth among Black American women. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2022;101:266 [Crossref]
12- Condon E, Barcelona V, Ibrahim B, Crusto C, Taylor J. Racial Discrimination, Mental Health, and Parenting Among African American Mothers of Preschool-Aged Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2022;61(3):402 [Crossref]


Reza Imani   

Associate Professor of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. 

 Email: eimani@skums.ac.ir



Soleiman Kheiri  

Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. 

 Email: kheiri@skums.ac.ir

Indexing & Abstracting








Follower of



 Powered by