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Epidemiol Health System J. 2023;10(2): 83-88.
doi: 10.34172/ehsj.2023.14
  Abstract View: 80
  PDF Download: 97

Original Article

Cancer Epidemiology in Radiation Oncology: An Institutional Experience From North India During 2016-2022

Preety Negi 1* ORCID logo, Harnoor Singh Pruthi 2 ORCID logo, Himanshu Srivastava 1 ORCID logo

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Capitol Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Capitol Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author: Preety Negi, Email: drpreetinegi@gmail.com

Abstract

Background and aims: Cancer is emerging as a serious health issue in developing countries mainly as a consequence of metamorphosis in the demography and epidemiology of various cancers. This study aimed to describe our institutional experience in terms of demographic, clinical, and radiation treatment characteristics in cancer patients.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on histopathologically proven carcinoma cases treated with radiation therapy (RT) from January 1, 2016 to May 31, 2022 at Capitol Hospital, Jalandhar. All enrolled 3753 patients’ data were retrieved from medical records on January 1, 2022. Baseline demographic, clinical information, and radiation treatment details were compiled, and chi-square test was performed to compare categorical data of age versus histology. The Jonkheere-Terpstra and Cuzick method was used to test the trend across different time periods for categorical variables (P<0.05).

Results: The trend analysis of the year-wise distribution and age demonstrated that the majority of diagnosed patients were in the age group of 51-70 years (mean age±standard deviation, 58±13.12). Most oncological patients represented good compliance (93.2%). The intention of radiation treatment was curative in 84.4% of patients, while the remaining patients (15.6%) were treated with palliative intent. It was found that RT plays a major role in the breast (21.1%), head and neck (20.4%), and female genitourinary (GU) (16.2%) malignancies as compared to male GU, gastrointestinal (GI), and other malignancies.

Conclusion: The findings revealed carcinoma breast, cervix uteri, head and neck, prostate, and esophagus as established cancers being treated with RT. Our analysis showed good compliance to the RT of 93.8% owing to modern techniques. The most common histologies were adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma observed in the age group of 51-70 years. The findings represented that RT is utilized in various settings in the multidisciplinary management of cancer. This epidemiological distribution might contribute to planning cancer control strategies in the near future.

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Submitted: 10 Sep 2022
Revision: 26 Apr 2023
Accepted: 22 May 2023
ePublished: 17 Jun 2023
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